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5 Questions for Cybersecurity Expert Jaime Foose

Emerson’s Jaime Foose joins our continuing podcast series, 5 Questions for an Emerson Expert. Jaime is an ICS cyber security expert, Director of Security Solutions and Lifecycle Shared Services. She helps power producers and water & wastewater utilities with programs and processes to improve their cyber defenses and the ongoing health of their distributed control systems & operational technology (OT).

Emerson's Jaime Foose

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Pressure Drop across Control Valves

Let’s end this short week for the United States of America’s 4th of July Independence Day holiday with an educational video from Emerson’s Fisher Valves & Instruments YouTube channel.

The video, Control Valve Sizing Basics: What is Pressure Drop?, describes what this is, how to calculate it, and its importance in the selection of the right control valve for your application.

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Considerations in Temperature Measurement Selection

When it comes to measuring temperature, there are a multitude of ways to do this. Do-it-yourselfers might use simple RTD or thermocouple sensors right into a microcontroller and display to provide basic temperature readings for their grills and BBQ pits. Or they could buy a ready-made transmitter and software to send the readings to their smart phones.

For industrial process manufacturers and producers, there are still many choices. In a Process Heating magazine article, How to Select Temperature Measurement Components, Emerson’s Todd Olin and Neil Larson describe the continuum of options and things to consider when selecting the right temperature measurement solution for your application.

Process Heating magazine article: How to Select Temperature Measurement ComponentsTodd and Neil open by comparing selection choices to how one might buy a personal computer.

Most people who purchase personal computers buy fully configured and assembled units. This is especially true for computer buyers who plan to use them for everyday tasks like word processing or surfing the web. Some buyers, however, prefer to design their own systems, selecting individual boards, cases, drives, power supplies and so on.

Similarly, the choice for temperature measurement can be for the sensor and how to connect it into the control system, or a fully integrated temperature transmitter that can pass an analog or digital signal back to the control system.

They highlight the sensor types.

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Desalination Measurements for Greater Efficiency

In many areas of the world, including the Asia-Pacific region, desalination plants have been built to meet the need for fresh water.

In a Water & Wastewater Asia magazine article, Liquid analysis: The key to efficient, economical desalination, Emerson’s Ryo Hashimoto describes desalination process types and their important measurements.

Water & Wastewater Asia: Liquid analysis: The key to efficient, economical desalinationRyo opens highlighting the two major desalination technologies:

…membrane separation (reverse osmosis or RO) and distillation. Because distillation is energy intensive, most major markets employ membrane separation.

These expensive membranes need to be carefully monitored to optimize fresh water production. In this reverse osmosis process:

…raw seawater or brackish groundwater is pumped at high pressure against a semi-permeable membrane. The membrane lets water pass through but it blocks and rejects dissolved solids as concentrated brine. Up to 99 per cent of the dissolved solids in the feedwater are separated out by RO membranes.

The trapped solids foul the membranes which then need to be cleaned. He notes that irreversible fouling can occur requiring these membranes to be:

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Sizing and Specifying Orifice Plate Flowmeters

An Emerson whitepaper, Fundamentals of Orifice Meter Measurement, shares the history of tried-and-true differential pressure (DP) measurement across an orifice plate (orifice plate flowmeters) to measure flow rate, which dates back to the end of the 1700s.

The first recorded use of an orifice device for fluid measurement was in 1797 by Giovanni B. Venturi, an Italian physicist whose work led to the development of the modern Venturi meter in 1886 by Clemons Herschel.

Orifice plate meters are still widely used today. In a Flow Control magazine article, Using orifice plate flowmeters to their full potential in flow applications, Emerson’s Steve Ifft highlights their popularity:

The orifice plate meter — where an orifice plate provides a restriction to the flow to create the necessary differential pressure (DP) — is one of the most popular and versatile flowmeters on the market today, accounting for 77 percent of all DP installations.

Flow Control: Using orifice plate flowmeters to their full potential in flow applicationsThese DP measurement systems consist of the orifice plate, a DP transmitter to measure the high and low side pressures, and calculations to convert this DP in a flow rate to send back to the flow computer or control system.

When specifying orifice plate meter systems, Steve shares four considerations: process characteristics & flow conditions, flow turndown (ratio of maximum flow to minimum flow at or better than the stated accuracy), allowable pressure drop, and the gas fraction in liquid flow or liquid fraction in gas flow. Accuracy is maintained:

…in liquid streams that contain up to 5.5 percent by volume of gas in liquids and up to 2.2 percent by weight of liquids in gas.

He describes the options and their advantages and disadvantages for the orifice holding device which holds the orifice plate: orifice flange union (OFU), single-chamber orifice fitting, dual-chamber orifice fitting. The OFU is the simplest and lowest cost option but is difficult to swap out orifice plates since it requires line depressurization and separation of the pipe flanges. Single-chamber orifice fittings also require line depressurization and provide the ability to:

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